Chapter 1



Four sources of packet delay

The network core

Network of Networks

Chapter 2

Hybrid of client-server and P2P

What transport services dies an app need?

TCP service

Identifying processes

process identifier = IP address + port numbers

Domain Name System

DNS protocol, messages

DNS servers

HTTP(HyperText Transfer Protocol)

HTTP response status codes


HTTP Performance

Electronic Mail

CDN: Content delivery network



Distributed Hash Table

both the number of neighbors per peer as well as the number of messages per query is O(log N), where N is the number of peers.


Chapter 3


Connection-oriented demux: Threaded Web Server

Connectionless demux

Why UDP?

Error detection code (EDC) and retransmission

Forwarding Error Correction

Detection vs Correction

Reliable Data Transfer

Selective Repeat vs Go-Back-N

Window Overlay Problem

TCP overview

TCP timer management

TCP flow control

TCP congestion control

Congestion can be caused by:

Congestion Prevention Policies in Open Loop Systems

To achieve congestion control, select appropriate policies at various levels: data link, network, and transport layer.

TCP congestion control

TCP Additive Increase, Multiplicative Decrease (AIMD)

When should the slow start (exponential increase) end?

when should congestion avoidance’s linear increase (of 1 MSS per RTT) end?

TCP throughput

TCP fairness

Chapter 4

Network Layer Function:

Router Functions:


Virtual Circuit

Why not keep the same VC number?

Router (four parts)

Input port function

Three types of switching

Output ports

Input port queuing

Output Port Queuing

Buffer design

Internet’s network layer

Datagram format

Header length


The maximum amount of data that a link-layer frame can carry is called the maximum transmission unit (MTU).

IP fragmentation and reassembly

IP header options

IP address


Classless IP Addressing

The Internet’s address assignment strategy: CIDR (Classless InterDomain Routing)

IP broadcast address

When a host sends a datagram with destination address, the message is delivered to all hosts on the same subnet. Routers optionally forward the message into neighboring subnets as well

DHCP: Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol

NAT: Network Address Translation

NAT Traversal Problem



Comparison of IPv4 and IPv6

Routing Algorithm classification

Routing algorithms

Distance Vector Routing / Bellman-Ford

Comparison between LSR and DVR

Hierarchical Routing

Routing in the internet - Hierarchical

RIP (Routing Information Protocol)

OSPF (Open Shortest Path Protocol)


Hierarchical OSPF

Border Gateway Protocol

Broadcast and multicast routing

broadcast routing:

Multicast Routing

Chapter 5 The Data Link Layer


Ideal MAC Protocol

Three broad classes of MAC protocols

Random Access MAC Protocol


CSMA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access)

listen before transmit:

Ethernet efficiency

Collision Region (CR) and Broadcast Region (BR)

Virtual LAN

Chapter 6 Wireless and Mobile Networks